Los Alamos National Laboratory
Periodic Table of Elements: LANL

Back to Elements List

The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.


Atomic Number: 32 Atomic Radius: 211 pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol: Ge Melting Point: 938.25 °C
Atomic Weight: 72.64 Boiling Point: 2833 °C
Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p2 Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)


From the Latin word Germania, Germany. Mendeleev predicted the existence of Germanium in 1871 as ekasilicon, and the element was discovered by Winkler in 1886.


The metal is found in

  • argyrodite, a sulfide of germanium and silver;
  • germanite, which contains 8 percent of the element;
  • zinc ores;
  • coal; and
  • other minerals

The element is commercially obtained from the dust from smelters that process zinc ores. It is also recovered from combustion by-products of certain coals.

Germanium can be separated from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride. These techniques permit the production of germanium of ultra-high purity.


The element is a gray-white metalloid. In pure state, the element is crystalline and brittle, retaining its luster in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 1010.


When germanium is doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst.

Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors.

The high index of refraction and dispersion properties of its oxide's have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives.

The field of organo-germanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Certain germanium compounds have a low mammalian toxicity, but a marked activity against certain bacteria, which makes them useful as chemotherapeutic agents.

Contact Us | Careers | Bradbury Science Museum | Emergencies | Inside LANL | Maps | Site Feedback | SSL Portal | Training

Operated by Triad National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA © Copyright 2021 Triad National Security, LLC All rights reserved | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy